Nevertheless, the relative sonority theory has been accepted by d. The syllable is a basic unit of speech studied on both the phonetic and phonological levels of analysis. The reason why ot is not a complete theory of phonology, is that it does not provide a set of. Optimality theory was introduced in the 1990s by linguists alan prince and paul smolensky optimality theory. In linguistics, optimality theory frequently abbreviated ot. For our purposes, it will be convenient to classify phonological changes under two headings, roughly corresponding to the. Section 3 examines possible implications of optimality theory for studies of language processing, discussing work on the computability of optimality theoretic grammars, as well as some conceptual similarities between optimality theory and work in connectionism and dynamical systems. Pdf this book provides an overview of the role of the syllable in optimality theory ot and ways in which problems that relate to the analysis of. It espouses a serialist view of morphology that is rejected by most current phonologists. There are three salient features of korean syllable structure. According to this theory a syllable is characterized by variations in muscular tension. The purpose of this paper is to revisit these three criteria by considering optimality theory hereafter, ot. Hayes phonological acquisition in optimality theory.
The syllabification is based on the max onset rule kahn 1976. Though originally developed from generative phonology, the principles of optimality theory have also been applied in studies of syntax, morphology, pragmatics, language change, and other. Optimality theory is a general model of how grammars are structured. An introduction to optimality theory blackwell publishing. These restrictions can be formalized in terms of constraints. The participants were 90 second graders belonging to one of two distinct levels of syllableawareness skills 50 with poor syllableawareness skills and 40 with proficient syllable. A typical example is the constraint nocoda, which forbids the occurrence in the output of syllables ending on a consonant a syllablefinal consonant is often. The interaction of tone and stress in optimality theory both candidates is the same, so there is no straightforward way to determine which of these two is the winner. Optimality theory has drawn a good deal of criticism, most of which is directed at its application to phonology rather than syntax or other fields. Optimality theory in phonology alan prince and paul smolensky 1. Optimality theory ot, proposed by prince and smolensky 1993 and mccarthy and prince 1993, also takes the syllable on board. Differences in grammars reflect different rankings of the universal constraint set, con. Defining the syllable the phonetic definition of the syllable is notoriously difficult.
No matter how easy it can be for people and even for children to count the number of syllables in a sequence in their native language, still there are no universally agreed upon phonetic definitions of what a syllable is. For example, if the maximal size is ccvcc, then cvcc, ccvc, cvc, and. Section 2 gives an example of syntax within the theory. Bi moracity of a foot is very important and is largely addressed in the literature. As a fullfledged grammar would be too cumbersome, i instead focus primarily on the behaviour of nasals in coda position. As might be expected a priori under a constraintbased approach, these researchers. Generative theory in that input is mapped onto output. Adopting the framework of optimality theory, this study explores the effect of high vowel deletion on syllable structure and the treatment of superheavy syllables in qa. Ot differs from other approaches to phonological analysis, such as autosegmental phonology and linear phonology spe, which typically use rules rather.
An optimality theory analysis of woleaian vowel chain. We saw that processes often apply to eliminate illformed sound combinations. Ot is the most contemporary linguistic framework advanced to. Description in this dissertation, i present a typology of obstruent clusters and argue that the systematic patterns of occurrence of these clusters must be explained in sonorityindependent terms. Another reason for clms lack of influence in phonology is the continuing force of the phonological. Yawelmani, the relevant constraints are a cvc limit on syllable size and a prohibition on unsyllabified consonants.
Remarks on optimality theory and language change 3 1996 and hutton 1996, and among the first dissertations were those by gess 1996, on latin to old french and holt 1997, on latin to hispanoromance. German word stress in optimality theory caroline fery, university of tubingen journal of comparative germanic linguistics 0. Optimality theory on acquisition research, and this paper will therefore focus on ot. Syllable structure in optimality theory is assigned to underlying forms inputs by a general function gen. Optimality theory as applied to language was originally proposed by the linguists. Citeseerx document details isaac councill, lee giles, pradeep teregowda. Constraint interaction in generative grammar, 19932004. It also addresses some frequently asked questions about this theory and offers suggestions. Introduction stress has always been a recurrent theme in phonology, even more so since libermans dissertation 1975, in which the foundations of the metrical theory were established. The prevailing nonsequential approach to phonology, the optimality theory, ot, is based not on rewrite rules but on constraints. In this project, the input of an english voiceless stop is regarded as an aspirated stop. Provide your comments or thoughts on the syllable count for theory below. Optimality theory optimality theory prince and smolensky 1993 ot is a theory of constraint interaction. The present study investigates the effects of syllable awareness on the wordreading process of students reading in a highly transparent orthography turkish.
It is a theory that has been most widely accepted in the realm of phonology, but has implications for all areas of linguistics. Optimality theoretic representation of stress in cairene. The syllable in optimality theory semantic scholar. The phonotactics and phonology of obstruent clusters in. I argue that there are two dimensions along which generalizations can be made. The aim is to establish a theory of syllable and syllable demarcation so as to generalize and simplify the framework of the generative phonology. The effects of syllableawareness skills on the word.
Syllables and stress and optimality theory blevins 1995 the syllable in phonological theory. Consonants at the end of the syllable should be devoid of. Mccarthy university of massachusetts amherst abstract. While some emphasized that sociological theory or social theory is a i w hati st he or y. A reader is a collection of readings on this important new theory by leading figures in the field, including a lengthy excerpt from prince and smolenskys neverbeforepublished optimality theory. Your book is focused on oldfashioned rewrite rules. Generating interlanguage syllabification in optimality theory. The widespread among russian linguists is the muscular tension or the articulatory effort theory which is known as scherbas theory. This is done in a single step without rules, templates or principles. Since a final cvc syllable does not always attract stress, the final syllable is coded as h only if it has a long vowel, otherwise it is coded as l.
Syllable weight plays a role, however, the weight to stress principle does not always apply. The constraint requiring all syllables to have initial consonants itos 1989. The basic idea behind syllable contact is that languages try to avoid a sequence of rising sonority over a syllable boundary vennemann 1988. Comment on the syllables in theory a comprehensive resource for finding syllables in theory, how many syllables are in theory, words that rhyme with theory, how to divide theory into syllables, how to pronounce theory, how to break theory into syllables, and how to. Optimality theory ot shifts the focus of linguistic discovery from rules and derivations to constraints and rankings. Evidence is also taken from elision word forms in the yamato stratum. Optimality theory ot is a linguistic model originally proposed by the linguists alan prince and paul smolensky in 1993. What are the advantages disadvantages of a rulebased method of phonological analysis over competing methods such as optimality theory. Candidate d, however is harmonically bounded by a, and by c. The main idea is that grammars impose a set of restrictions on what are valid surface forms. Introduction woleaian is an austronesian language spoken in the woleaian atoll of micronesia sohn 1975. No matter how easy it can be for people and even for children to count the number of syllables in a sequence in their native language, still there are no universally agreed upon. Linguistic and cognitive explanation in optimality theory. Moreover, the theory of syllable can provide the adequate definition of the strong and weak clusters.
What are the advantages disadvantages of a rulebased. Constraint interaction in generative grammar compiles the most important readings about optimality theory in phonology from some of the most prominent researchers in. Syllables and syllable structure in arabic in the light of. Ot provides new angles on longstanding diachronic questions, whilst historical data and models of change bear directly on the assessment of ot. The syllable in optimality theory edited by caroline fery. A common view is that a syllable is a prominence peak, but the definition says little about where syllable boundaries are.
We should rather see it as part of the phonological toolbox, part of the technical machinery we need in order to have a fullblown theory of phonology. Optimality theory assumes that these components are universal. This article surveys the motivations for ot, its core principles, and the basics of analysis. Thus, the present study aims to provide an analysis of syllable structure in qa and to contribute to the current research on arabic syllable structure. Basically, i accept the ideas of cyclic coneval loop and locally encoded finite candidate set proposed by hammond 1995, 1997b. Optimality theory in phonology california institute of. Maximal syllable size and wordedge consonants theories of syllables structure often assume a maximal syllable size for a given language. Theories of syllable structure defining the syllable. Though originally developed from generative phonology, the principles of optimality theory have also been applied in studies of syntax, morphology, pragmatics, language change, and other areas. Theory, in which markedness has no substantive status in the grammar, but functions as an external system of annotations on parameter values, evaluating a grammars complexity. Many criticisms of ot are, according to its proponents, based on fundamental misunderstanding of how it works.
An optimalitytheoretic analysis of syllable structure in. An optimality theory analysis of woleaian vowel chain shift. Pdf the interaction of tone and stress in optimality theory. Therefore, d cannot be the optimal candidate under any ranking of just these three constraints, though it could be optimal with a larger constraint set. Our decision to begin this lecture series on modern social theory with the question what is theory. As just noted, this will often be richer and more intricate than can be detected from the childs own speech. Although much of the interest in ot has been associated with its use in phonology the area to which ot was first applied, the theory is also applicable to other subfields of.
In class we mainly approached phonology from a rulebased perspective, and were breifly told of ots constraintbased approach in passing. Endogenous constraints on optimality theory lsa linguistic institute junejuly 1997 alan prince rutgers universitynew brunswick 0. Optimality theory for those who assume language typology, there is perhaps a limited number of types for each linguistic aspect e. Crosslinguistic variation in syllable types v cv cvc vc ccv ccvc cvcc vcc ccvcc cvccc hua. In romance languages and linguistic theory 12 romance languages and linguistic theory, 12, pp.1090 1012 960 1586 1370 772 267 27 1328 1324 1034 1152 328 1550 1377 758 831 1078 614 865 707 194 549 1137 531 957 670 1494 548